T.K. Mohanty, R.N. Pal, K.V.H. Sastry and B.P. Singh
National Research Centre on Yak, Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR), Dirang-790 101, West Kameng District, Arunachal Pradesh, India
Reproductive rate in yak is low in the natural habitat of high altitude due to several factors, principal ones being winter stress and nutritional deficiency. Age at first service and post-partum anoestrus are major problems that result in small calf crop and long calving intervals. Generally, yak reproduce in alternate year due to short breeding season. Hormonal management of anoestrus is costly and requires expert examination of the animal. This is not possible in the yak due to mobility of herds and inaccessibility of the grazing areas.
In this experiment, herbal drug and mineral supplementation were tried in true anoestrus yak in randomly selected animals.
Only 20% of the animals in Group I came to heat in the same breeding season and 40.6% of the animals came to heat in Group II on first treatment while total oestrus percentage increased to 55.8% on subsequent treatment with the same medicine to the non-responders after fifteen days. However, in Group III, 78.7% of the animals showed oestrous symptoms after first treatment and after repeating the treatment to non-responders total oestrus percentage increased to 86.4%. Small amount of concentrate, mineral supplementation and use of Prajana treatment can manage anoestrus condition in yak efficiently.
Keywords: Anoestrus, Cyclomin-7, herbal medicine, Prajana, yak
Delayed sexual maturity, post-partum anoestrus and seasonal breeding are major problems in the field condition in yak. The main reason for anoestrus in yak is nutritional deficiency as the yak survive solely on grazing. The age at sexual maturity, post-partum anoestrus and calving intervals are very high in yak (Pal 1993; Mohanty 1997). These problems can be eliminated in the field condition by modest supplementation with concentrate feeds, conservation of fodder for crisis feeding and provision of mineral supplements. Traditional indigenous veterinary remedies are routinely practised in animal treatment particularly in rural areas. Hormonal management of anoestrus is costly and requires examination of the animal by experts. This is impossible due to inaccessible yak tract. Standardisation of pharmacology of clinically proven drugs in animals has already been initiated such formulations as Prajana (Indian Herbs), Janova (Dabur Ayurvet Ltd), Aloes compound (Vet) (Alersin), Sajni (Srabhai Chemicals) for use in different animal species. These formulations are potent combinations of herbs formulated scientifically to induce ovarian activity in anoestrus animals. Action is closely similar to gonadotrophin and helps release of hormones for inducing ovulatory oestrus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate one such formulated drug in combination with mineral supplement to induce ovulatory oestrus in post-partum anoestrus yak.
A total of 30 post-partum anoestrus primiparous yak were selected from the yak herd of National Research Centre on Yak, Dirang, Arunachal Pradesh, managed in semi-range system over a three-year period. Yak in the farm were supplemented with normal concentrate, hay and green fodder throughout the year. These animals were examined by rectal palpation to monitor activity of ovaries at every 15 days interval. They were also closely observed for signs of oestrus. The trial consisted of three experimental groups: Group I, 10 animals were assigned without any treatment and were kept on normal feeding regimen; Group II, eight animals were treated with Cyclomin-7 tablets for seven days and examined for the ovarian activity. Those which did not come to heat were given repeat treatment with Cyclomin-7 after 15 days and examined for ovarian activity; Group III, 12 animals were first treated as Group II and after treatment were supplemented with 2 tablets of Prajana for three consecutive days and non-responders were treated again with Prajana after 15 days and evaluated for ovarian activity.
The compositional details of the preparations/drugs used in the study were: Cyclomin-7 tablets have Cobalt-14 mg, Copper-174 mg, Iodine-35 mg, Iron-350 mg, Manganese-140 mg, Selenium-1 mg, Zinc-70 mg; and Prajana (Indian herbs)-contains extracts of Citrullus cococynthis, Piper nigam, Piper longum, Zinziber officinale and Sesamum indicum.
Only 20% of the animals in Group I came to heat in the same breeding season and 40.6% of the animals came to heat in Group II on first treatment, while total oestrus percentage increased to 55.8% on subsequent treatment with the same medicine to the non-responders after fifteen days. However, in Group III, 78.7% of the animals showed oestrous symptoms after first treatment and after repeating the treatment to non-responders total oestrus percentage increased to 86.4%. The mean time interval from treatment to oestrus was around 12 to 14.5 days in all the groups. The mean conception rate was very high-up to 85%-in all the groups.
Several indigenous drugs marketed by Indian pharmaceutical companies have been studied in cattle and buffaloes with very high rate of success. These include results reported for Prajana (Patil et al. 1983; Kodagali et al.1991), for Heatinee (Nemade et al. 1994), for Estron (Shah and Derashri 1985), for Moralac tablet (Dhoble and Markandeya 1995), MAU drug (Dhavale et al. 1998; Nisoli et al. 1991), all of which are in agreement with the present findings. The high success with Cyclomin-7 indicates that there is deficiency of some of the trace element playing important roles in the high incidence of anoestrus in yak. In the combination therapy with Prajana, the success rate was very high which clearly indicates that mineral and hormonal disturbance is the major cause of very high incidence of post-partum anoestrus in yak. This is in agreement with the findings of Sharma et al. (1996) in heifer and cows. This treatment may be helpful in heifers to initiate oestrus cycles at an early age, thus reducing the age at first calving in yak, which are seasonally anoestrus due to nutritional deficiency and climatic stress. Anoestrus condition in yak can be managed efficiently by mineral supplementation and use of Prajana treatment to improve the sexual maturity and reduce the calving interval in yak heifers and cows.
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